EI Research Report: Measurements of emissions to air of particulate matter (PM10), nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three UK oil refineries

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  • Published: September 2012
  • REF/ISBN: 9780852936337
  • Edition: 1st
  • Status: New

Measurements of the concentration of PM10, nickel (total and in particulate phase), total PAHs and B[a]P have been made in stacks at three UK oil refineries. Measurements were made on two dual-fired combustion units and on two FCCU regenerators. These data were used to calculate the mass emissions of these pollutants.

All of the measured concentrations of PAH and B[a]P, for both combustion units and FCCUs, were below the limit of detection of the analytical equipment used.

The research has shown, assuming the limited measurements are representative, that the oil refining sector is over-estimating its emissions of PM10 from both combustion and FCCUs and also nickel emissions from FCCUs. It may also be over-estimating PAH emissions as all of the measurements were reported to be below the limit of detection values. However, the sector may be under-estimating the quantity of nickel emitted from fuel oil firing. Recommendations have been proposed to improve the accuracy of the oil refinery submissions to the UK emissions inventories.

This report also reviews the significance of the oil refining sector’s contribution to the UK inventories of PM10, nickel and PAHs (in particular B[a]P). It provides the measured concentration and calculated mass flux data obtained from the stack monitoring campaigns. From the latter, comparisons are made with emission estimates derived using referenced methodologies. This comparison enables an assessment of the reasonableness of the estimation methods currently used by the oil refining sector to provide data for the UK emissions inventories.

This publication should be of interest to oil refinery operators as well as to inform regulators about their submissions to UK inventories.

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